InfusedHeart: A Novel Knowledge-Infused Learning Framework for Diagnosis of Cardiovascular Events

Sharnil Pandya, Thippa Reddy Gadekallu*, Praveen Kumar Reddy, Weizheng Wang, Mamoun Alazab

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Citations (Scopus)


In the undertaken study, we have used a customized dataset termed ``Cardiac-200'' and the benchmark dataset ``PhysioNet.'' which contains 1500 heartbeat acoustic event samples (without augmentation) and 1950 samples (with augmentation) heartbeat acoustic events such as normal, murmur, extrasystole, artifact, and other unlabeled heartbeat acoustic events. The primary reason for designing a customized dataset, ``cardiac-200,'' is to balance the total number of samples into categories such as normal and abnormal heartbeat acoustic events. The average duration of the recorded heartbeat acoustic events is 10-12 s. In the undertaken study, we have analyzed and evaluated various heartbeat acoustic events using audio processing libraries such as Chromagram, Chroma-cq, Chroma-short-time Fourier transform (STFT), Chroma-cqt, and Chroma-cens to extract more information from the recorded heartbeat sound signals. The noise removal process has been carried out using local binary pattern (LBP) methodology. The noise-robust heartbeat acoustic images are classified using long short-term memory (LSTM)-convolutional neural network (CNN), recurrent neural network (RNN), LSTM, Bi-LSTM, CNN, K-means Clustering, and support vector machine (SVM) methods. The obtained results have shown that the proposed InfusedHeart Framework had outclassed all the other customized machine learning and deep learning approaches such as RNN, LSTM, Bi-LSTM, CNN, K-means Clustering, and SVM-based classification methodologies. The proposed Knowledge-infused Learning Framework has achieved an accuracy of 89.36% (without augmentation), 93.38% (with augmentation), and a standard deviation of 10.64 (without augmentation), and 6.62 (with augmentation). Furthermore, the proposed framework has been tested for various signal-to-noise ratio conditions such as SignaltoNoiseRatio0, SignaltoNoiseRatio3, SignaltoNoiseRatio6, SignaltoNoiseRatio9, SignaltoNoiseRatio12, SignaltoNoiseRatio15, and SignaltoNoiseRatio18. In the end, we have shown a detailed comparison of texture and without texture approaches and have discussed future enhancements and prospective ways for future directions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3060-3069
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Computational Social Systems
Issue number3
Early online date2 Mar 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2024
Externally publishedYes

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