Intelligent charging planning for electric vehicle commercial parking lots and its impact on distribution network’s imbalance indices

Mohammad Ali Baherifard, Rasool Kazemzadeh*, Ahmad Sadeghi Yazdankhah, Mousa Marzband

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Citations (Scopus)


The outstanding demand of Electric Vehicles (EVs) has resulted the expansion of parking lots, while leading issues such as imbalance in power grid. Therefore, the critically planned charging stations infrastructure is essential to resolve these problems. In fact, the distribution network operators (DSO), EV users, and intelligent commercial parking lots (CPL) owners are holding different views that should be considered simultaneously to improve the accuracy of an effective business plan. However, the prime challenge in addressing the planning of CPL is to increase the EV user interest while enhancing the CPL owners’ profit. Simultaneously, DSO requirement for network performance under the appropriate conditions (for example, imbalance) will also be considered. Further one of the main challenges of CPL presence in an imbalanced distribution network is the effect that additionally carry on network imbalance indices. In this paper, a two-stage framework has proposed where the first stage is accompanied with several technical parameters such as battery terms, charge/discharge specifications, and transportation parameters including daily distance travelled, arrival and departure times to the CPL, and amount EV sales, the profitability of the EV charging/discharging program for EV users as well as CPL owners calculated in the optimal CPL scheduling. In the second stage, the effect of CPLs is studied by calculating the imbalance indices in a standard IEEE imbalanced distribution network. Moreover ,the results confirm that the average profit for EV users has been increased by 23% compared to the total cost paid for charging EV. Eventually, it is recognized that without changing the distribution network structure and connecting CPL to active commercial loads of the distribution network, the network imbalance could be improved around 30% during EV charging.
Original languageEnglish
Article number100620
Number of pages14
JournalSustainable Energy, Grids and Networks
Early online date24 Jan 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2022


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