Internet of Things Applications, Security Challenges, Attacks, Intrusion Detection, and Future Visions: A Systematic Review

Nivedita Mishra, Sharnil Pandya*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

153 Citations (Scopus)


Internet of Things (IoT) technology is prospering and entering every part of our lives, be it education, home, vehicles, or healthcare. With the increase in the number of connected devices, several challenges are also coming up with IoT technology: heterogeneity, scalability, quality of service, security requirements, and many more. Security management takes a back seat in IoT because of cost, size, and power. It poses a significant risk as lack of security makes users skeptical towards using IoT devices. This, in turn, makes IoT vulnerable to security attacks, ultimately causing enormous financial and reputational losses. It makes up for an urgent need to assess present security risks and discuss the upcoming challenges to be ready to face the same. The undertaken study is a multi-fold survey of different security issues present in IoT layers: perception layer, network layer, support layer, application layer, with further focus on Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks. DDoS attacks are significant threats for the cyber world because of their potential to bring down the victims. Different types of DDoS attacks, DDoS attacks in IoT devices, impacts of DDoS attacks, and solutions for mitigation are discussed in detail. The presented review work compares Intrusion Detection and Prevention models for mitigating DDoS attacks and focuses on Intrusion Detection models. Furthermore, the classification of Intrusion Detection Systems, different anomaly detection techniques, different Intrusion Detection System models based on datasets, various machine learning and deep learning techniques for data pre-processing and malware detection has been discussed. In the end, a broader perspective has been envisioned while discussing research challenges, its proposed solutions, and future visions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9405669
Pages (from-to)59353-59377
Number of pages25
JournalIEEE Access
Early online date15 Apr 2021
Publication statusPublished - 23 Apr 2021
Externally publishedYes

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