Introducing ATMs in India: a contextual enquiry

Antonella De Angeli, Lynne Coventry, Uday Athavankar, Anirudha Joshi, Graham Johnson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents a method and results of an ethnographic study aimed at building an understanding of Automatic Teller Machine (ATM) adoption in Mumbai, India. The study combined field observations and semi-structured interviews (N=43) of early ATM adopters, bank customers who do not use ATMs, and people who used the ATM for the first time as part of our research. Data were analysed to identify specific cultural traits that may affect the adoption of ATMs in urban India. Results demonstrated the unique role of the cultural context in affecting users' expectations and behavioural possibilities, thus determining people's response to the machine. This led to the conclusion that an understanding of cultural biases and metaphors can facilitate technology diffusion and acceptance informing design localisation and supporting the development of strategies to motivate and train users.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)29-44
JournalInteracting with Computers
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2004


Dive into the research topics of 'Introducing ATMs in India: a contextual enquiry'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this