Ion beam analysis (IBA) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for forensic characterisation of authentic Viagra® and of sildenafil-based illegal products

Francesco S Romolo, Mehmet Sarilar, Johann Antoine, Serena Mestria, Sabina Strano Rossi, Matteo D. Gallidabino, Guilherme M. Soares de Souza, Paola Chytry, Johnny Ferraz Diaz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Illegal trafficking of pharmaceutical products by criminal organisations is a global threat for public health. Drugs for erectile dysfunction such as phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors are the most commonly counterfeited medicines in Europe. The search of possible toxic chemical substances in seized products is needed to provide early warning for public health. Furthermore, the elemental profile of the seized products can be useful in criminal investigations. For the first time an ion beam analysis (IBA) procedure to characterise authentic Viagra® tablets and sildenafil-based illegal products is described. Moreover, results are compared with the ones obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) on authentic Viagra® tablets in two reactors. IBA results showed that a combination of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and secondary ion mass spectrometry using primary ions with energies in the range of several MeV (MeV-SIMS) is a powerful tool to characterise different products in a straightforward manner, allowing discrimination between legal and illegal products. INAA allowed accurate elemental quantification and also showed a great potential for the future implementation of an inter-laboratory classification system.
Original languageEnglish
Article number121829
Pages (from-to)121829
Number of pages8
JournalTalanta
Volume224
Early online date4 Nov 2020
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 4 Nov 2020

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