Aim: Gestational diabetes (GDM) and mental disorder are common perinatal morbidities and are associated with adverse maternal and child outcomes. While there is a relationship between type 2 diabetes and mental disorder, the relationship between GDM and mental disorder has been less studied. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of mental disorders in women with GDM and their risk for mental disorders compared with women without GDM. Methods: Published, peer-reviewed literature measuring prevalence and/or odds of GDM and perinatal mental disorders was reviewed systematically. Risk of bias was assessed using a checklist. Two independent reviewers were involved. Analyses were grouped by stage of peripartum, i.e. antepartum at the time of GDM diagnosis and after diagnosis, and in the postpartum. Results: Sixty-two studies were included. There was an increased risk of depressive symptoms in the antenatal period around the time of diagnosis of GDM [odds ratio (OR) 2.08; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.42, 3.05] and in the postnatal period (OR 1.59; 95% CI 1.26, 2.00). Conclusions: Given the potential relationship between GDM and perinatal mental disorders, integration of physical and mental healthcare in women experiencing GDM and mental disorders could improve short- and long-term outcomes for women and their children.