Although it is generally accepted that burnout has an effect on cognitive functioning, very few studies have so far examined the link between cognitive functioning and job burnout. The purpose of this systematic review was to explore the reported association between burnout and cognitive functioning, as assessed objectively (that is, using psychometric tests rather than self-reports). The review identified 15 English-language articles published between 2005 and 2013. The results suggest that burnout is connected to specific cognitive deficits. In particular, burnout has been found to be associated with a decline in three main cognitive functions: executive functions, attention and memory. These results have clear implications, in particular for professions that are characterized by high levels of both work pressure and cognitive demands. Due to the scarcity and heterogeneity of available articles, future longitudinal prospective studies are needed, in order to determine the cognitive functions predominantly impaired as a result of burnout, and to establish causal relationships.