Light transmission mechanisms in a SMF-capillary fiber-SMF structure and its application to bi-directional liquid level measurement

Ziyi Huang, Dejun Liu, Qiang Wu, Ke Tian, Haoyu Zhao, Changyu Shen, Gerald Farrell, Yuliya Semenova, Pengfei Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Capillary fiber (CF) has been extensively investigated in a singlemode fiber (SMF)CF-SMF (SCS) sensing structure since multiple light guiding mechanisms can be easily excited by simply tuning the air core diameter (cladding diameter) and length of the CF. Understanding the light guiding principles in an SCS structure is essential for improved implementation of a CF based fiber sensor. In this work, light guiding principles in a relatively large air core diameter (≥ 20 µm) and long length of CF (> 1 mm) are investigated theoretically and experimentally. It is found that both multimode interference (MMI) and Anti-Resonant Reflecting Optical Waveguide (ARROW) light guiding mechanisms are excited in the SCS structure in the transmission configuration. However, MMI dips are not observed in the spectrum for the air core diameters of CF smaller than 50 µm in the experiment due to large transmission loss in small air core CFs. Further experimental results demonstrate that a CF with a bigger air core diameter shows a higher sensitivity to curvature, and the highest sensitivity of -16.15 nm/m−1 is achieved when an CF-100 was used. In addition, a SMF-CF-20-CF-30-SMF (SCCS) structure is proposed for high sensitivity bi-direction liquid level measurement for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. Two types of ARROW dips (Dip-20 and Dip-30) are simultaneously excited in transmission, hence both liquid level and liquid flow direction can be detected by tracing the dip strength changes of Dip-20 and Dip-30, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21876-21893
Number of pages18
JournalOptics Express
Volume30
Issue number12
Early online date2 Jun 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 6 Jun 2022

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