Energy saving is a primary area of concern that needs to be addressed in the global context. Thermal energy storage is one of multiple ways in which energy saving can be achieved in various industry applications. This will also result in more efficient use of solar energy. The implementation of phase change materials (PCMs) in systems of thermal energy storage increases their efficiency. This study analyzes the current trends in investigations of PCMs published in the last 10–15years. The n-alkanes, paraffin waxes, fatty acids, sugar alcohols, salt hydrates, chlorides, carbonates, nitrates, and their blends have been considered in this review. The thermophysical properties and stability data of more than 100 PCMs located in multiple figures and tables were digitized, processed, and presented in the numerical form or in the forms of temperature-dependent functions. The requirements all PCMs should meet are listed and the direction of investigation to which the researchers’ efforts should be focused are recommended.