The aim of this study was to determine the effect of low and moderate doses of caffeine ingestion via caffeinated coffee on repeated sprint test (RST) and plasma catecholamine concentration in trained female team-sport athletes. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, 13 female team-sport athletes (VO2max: 48.7 ± 4 mL·kg·min−1) completed three RST trials, separated by 4-day, 60 min post-ingestion of either 3 mg·kg−1 (LCOF) or 6 mg·kg−1 (MCOF) or placebo (PLA). The RST consisted of 12 × 4 s sprints on a cycle ergometer interspersed with 20 s of active recovery. Blood lactate (BLa) and glucose (GLU) and epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations were collected before and 60 min after coffee ingestion, and after RST. Heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at the beginning of RST, and after the 6th and 12th sprints. Average peak power score during RST was significantly improved after LCOF (p = 0.016) and MCOF (p = 0.041) compared to PLA, but peak and mean power output of the individual sprints, and fatigue index were not different between trials (all p > 0.05). Epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations were significantly higher before and after RST in LCOF and MCOF compared to PLA (all p < 0.05). BLa was also higher after RST in both LCOF and MCOF compared to PLA (p = 0.005). HR, RPE, and GLU were not different between conditions (p > 0.05). In conclusion, low and moderate dose of caffeine ingestion can enhance the average peak power score during repeated sprints. These findings partly support low and moderate doses of caffeine supplementation via coffee as a nutritional ergogenic aid for trained female team-sport players during repeated sprint exercise.