Low-cost housing: a cost management model for process integration and evaluation

L. Obi*, M. Arif, J. Goulding

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Effective cost management is a vital requisite for successful Low-cost housing projects (LHPs) management and delivery. Whilst several attempts have been made to develop appropriate structured models for cost management practice, many of these models are fragmented failing to capture a holistic representation of the system components or their interrelationships in LHP settings. Moreover, these models are predominantly descriptive by nature–only identifying the components of cost management and not how they can be implemented within LHP settings. This research adopts an explicit sequential mixed research design to develop a bespoke LHP cost management model for process integration and evaluation in Nigeria. This identifies the structures and interrelationships needed to conceptualise and implement cost management practice effectively. Research findings highlight eight important techniques; target costing, approximate estimating, site meetings, earned value analysis, on-site resource control, cash flow analysis, cost reporting and cost aggregation. The importance of a well-developed client brief; detailed project designs and accompanying specifications; effective project planning and supervision; and competent teams (client and contractor) to discharge responsibilities are emphasised. The importance of early contractor involvement was also seen as a core lever for success throughout the pre-design, design, and construction stages of LHP. The resulting model standardises cost management practice to provide a systematic ‘blueprint’ beneficial to project managers, cost managers and project management teams in evaluating and managing CMS processes more effectively in LHP settings. Hence this model can be adopted by Housing agencies as a requirement for cost management practice in LHPs settings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)411-425
Number of pages15
JournalArchitectural Engineering and Design Management
Issue number6
Early online date12 Mar 2020
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2020
Externally publishedYes


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