Low-Overhead Time Synchronization for Energy-Constraint Industrial Internet of Things

Shuxin Liu, Xuewu Dai, Yan Zong, Zhian Jia, Dong Zhou, Dongliang Cui*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


Time synchronization is of significance in the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). For the impact of energy-constrained batteries for power in IIoT, a novel low-overhead time synchronization algorithm via one-way single packet exchange, i.e., improved packet-coupled oscillators (I-PkCOs), is proposed in this paper, which mainly consists of time-information packet exchange protocol according to a time-division multiple access scheme and an adaptive proportional-integral feedback clock adjustment algorithm. For clock adjustment, a proportional-integral controller is used to generate the clock adjustment amount and an adaptive algorithm is introduced to adjust the clock offset first and the clock skew later. This algorithm schedules Sync packets to be transmitted in different time slots, which can avoid packet collision and channel sniffing. Moreover, a node only needs to send one Sync packet per synchronization cycle, which effectively reduces the communication overhead and energy consumption. Hardware experiments on the SAM R21 board of processing the 32.768 MHz oscillator show that the proposed method reduces packet transmission by 50% compared to the Time synchronization Protocol for Sensor Networks (TPSN). Moreover, it has better synchronization accuracy and stability than the Packet-Coupled Oscillators (PkCOs) protocol and PISync algorithm and can achieve 1.61μs synchronization accuracy in a single-cluster network.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2023 6th International Symposium on Autonomous Systems ISAS 2023
Place of PublicationPiscataway, US
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9798350316155
ISBN (Print)9798350316162
Publication statusPublished - 23 Jun 2023
Event2023 6th International Symposium on Autonomous Systems (ISAS) - Crowne Plaza Nanjing, Nanjing, China
Duration: 23 Jun 202325 Jun 2023


Conference2023 6th International Symposium on Autonomous Systems (ISAS)
Internet address

Cite this