Magmatic and tectonic segmentation of the intermediate-spreading Costa Rica Rift—a fine balance between magma supply rate, faulting and hydrothermal circulation

A.H. Robinson, L. Zhang, Richard W. Hobbs, C. Peirce, Vincent Tong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
4 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

3-D tomographic modelling of wide-angle seismic data, recorded at the intermediate-spreading Costa Rica Rift, has revealed a P-wave seismic velocity anomaly low located beneath a small overlapping spreading centre that forms a non-transform discontinuity at the ridge axis. This low velocity zone displays a maximum velocity anomaly relative to the 'background' ridge axis crustal structure of ∼0.5 km s -1, has lateral dimensions of ∼10 × 5 km, and extends to depths ≥2.5 km below the seabed, placing it within layer 2 of the oceanic crust. We interpret these observations as representing increased fracturing under enhanced tectonic stress associated with the opening of the overlapping spreading centre, that results in higher upper crustal bulk porosity and permeability. Evidence for ongoing magmatic accretion at the Costa Rica Rift ridge axis takes the form of an axial magma lens beneath the western ridge segment, and observations of hydrothermal plume activity and microearthquakes support the presence of an active fluid circulation system. We propose that fracture pathways associated with the low velocity zone may provide the system through which hydrothermal fluids circulate. These fluids cause rapid cooling of the adjacent ridge axis and any magma accumulations which may be present. The Costa Rica Rift exists at a tipping point between episodic phases of magmatic and tectonically enhanced spreading. The characteristics inherited from each spreading mode have been preserved in the crustal morphology off-axis for the past 7 Myr. Using potential field data, we contextualize our seismic observations of the axial ridge structure at the whole segment scale, and find that the proposed balance between magmatic and tectonically dominated spreading processes observed off-axis may also be apparent along-axis, and that the current larger-scale magma supply system at the Costa Rica Rift may be relatively weak. Based on all available geophysical observations, we suggest a model for the inter-relationships between magmatism, faulting and fluid circulation at the Costa Rica Rift across a range of scales, which may also be influenced by large lithosphere scale structural and/or thermal heterogeneity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)132-152
Number of pages21
JournalGeophysical Journal International
Volume222
Issue number1
Early online date28 Mar 2020
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2020
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Magmatic and tectonic segmentation of the intermediate-spreading Costa Rica Rift—a fine balance between magma supply rate, faulting and hydrothermal circulation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this