The endoplasmic reticulum-located multimolecular peptide-loading complex functions to load optimal peptides onto major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules for presentation to CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Two oxidoreductases, ERp57 and protein-disulfide isomerase, are known to be components of the peptide-loading complex. Within the peptide-loading complex ERp57 is normally found disulfide-linked to tapasin, through one of its two thioredoxin-like redox motifs. We describe here a novel trimeric complex that disulfide links together MHC class I heavy chain, ERp57 and tapasin, and that is found in association with the transporter associated with antigen processing peptide transporter. The trimeric complex normally represents a small subset of the total ERp57-tapasin pool but can be significantly increased by altering intracellular oxidizing conditions. Direct mutation of a conserved structural cysteine residue implicates an interaction between ERp57 and the MHC class I peptide-binding groove. Taken together, our studies demonstrate for the first time that ERp57 directly interacts with MHC class I molecules within the peptide-loading complex and suggest that ERp57 and protein-disulfide isomerase act in concert to regulate the redox status of MHC class I during antigen presentation.