Background: Contradictory results exist regarding sex-related differences following exercise-induced muscle damage and little is known concerning the follow-up of a traditional resistance exercise protocol. Objective: To investigate sex differences-related time course of recovery following a traditional strength training protocol (4 sets at 80% of 1-RM). Methods: Ten women and ten men participated in the study. Peak torque (PT), arm circumference (CIR), delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), muscle thickness (MT) and echo intensity (EI) were measured before (Pre), immediately post (0 hours), 24, 48, and 72 hours after. Results: Men demonstrated significantly greater relative strength loss than women at 0 h (-26.8 ± 5.0% vs.-15.5 ± 12.4%; P < 0.05), with no significant difference at other time points. Men also experienced a larger increase of CIR (p < 0.05) and MT (p < 0.05) at 0 h compared to women, with no significant difference at other time points. At 72 h, men showed a significantly greater development of DOMS (p < 0.05). EI revealed no sex differences. Conclusion: Following a traditional strength training protocol the recovery appears to be similar in untrained young women and men. Furthermore the next training session should not take place before a rest period of at least 72 h.