Background: Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and late-onset sepsis (LOS) are the leading causes of death among preterm infants in the developed world. This study aimed to explore the serum proteome and metabolome longitudinally in preterm infants with NEC or LOS, matched to controls. Methods: Nineteen patients (10 cases, 9 controls) were included. A sample 14 d prior to and following, as well as at disease diagnosis, was included for cases. Controls had serum matched at diagnosis for corresponding case. All samples (n = 39) underwent shotgun proteomic analysis, and 37 samples also underwent metabolomics analysis using ultra performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Results: The proteomic and metabolomic profiles of serum were comparable between all infants. Eight proteins were associated with NEC and four proteins were associated with LOS. C-reactive protein was increased in all NEC patients at diagnosis. Conclusion: No single protein or metabolite was detected in all NEC or LOS cases which was absent from controls; however, several proteins were identified which were associated with disease status. The differing expression of these proteins between diseased infants potentially relates to differing pathophysiology of disease. Thus, it is unlikely a single biomarker exists for NEC and/or LOS.