The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778), is a worldwide distributed ectoparasite and considered a major pest affecting the laying hen industry in Europe. Based on available information in other ectoparasites, the mite microbiome might participate in several biological processes and the acquisition, maintenance and transmission of pathogens. However, little is known about the role of PRM as a mechanical carrier or a biological vector in the transmission of pathogenic bacteria. Herein, we used a metaproteomics approach to characterize the alphaproteobacteria in the microbiota of PRM, and variations in its profile with ectoparasite development (nymphs vs. adults) and feeding (unfed vs. fed). The results showed that the bacterial community associated with D. gallinae was mainly composed of environmental and commensal bacteria. Putative symbiotic bacteria of the genera Wolbachia, C. Tokpelaia and Sphingomonas were identified, together with potential pathogenic bacteria of the genera Inquilinus, Neorickettsia and Roseomonas. Significant differences in the composition of alphaproteobacterial microbiota were associated with mite development and feeding, suggesting that bacteria have functional implications in metabolic pathways associated with blood feeding. These results support the use of metaproteomics for the characterization of alphaproteobacteria associated with the D. gallinae microbiota that could provide relevant information for the understanding of mite-host interactions and the development of potential control interventions. Research highlights Metaproteomics is a valid approach for microbiome characterization in ectoparasites. Alphaproteobacteria putative bacterial symbionts were identified in D. gallinae. Mite development and feeding were related to variations in bacterial community. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were identified in mite microbiota.