Micro/Nanoscale 3-Dimensional Fabrication using Multi-Photons Polymerization: Review

Ilwoo Seok*, Dan Kilula, Zhanhu Guo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
21 Downloads (Pure)


Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D printing, has emerged as a popular digital fabrication technology that enables the creation of physical objects from digital geometric information by successive addition of materials. This review provides an overview of various 3D printing methods developed and commercialized, such as selective deposition lamination (SDL), fused deposition modeling (FDM), binder jet process, and material jetting. Furthermore, it discusses the micro/nanoscale 3-dimensional fabrication process that uses polymerization, a chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine to form larger molecules having repeated structural units. The review delves into the fundamental physics of polymer materials, including the incident photon energy with a femtosecond wavelength and the photopolymerization process in two photons Polymerization (TPP). It also examines photosensitive materials, such as photoinitiator and polymer, used in TPP technology and properties, including positivity/negativity and biodegradability. In addition, the article discusses the difference between polymer materials with nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes in nanocomposite applications. The review also addresses the role of lasers, the core source in polymerization printing technology, and their beam propagation, spot size, and yielding intensity. Finally, it introduces various photon-polymerization applications in bio-medical, tissue engineering, optics, and micromachine systems, such as micro-scale fluidics and robots.

Original languageEnglish
Article number849
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalES Materials and Manufacturing
Early online date20 Mar 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2023

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