A heat transfer model of polymer composite reinforced by buckypaper was established in this study to analyze how the shapes, heating power and thermal conductivity of polymer matrix affect the temperature distribution and heating uniformity. Thermal responses of the polymer composites reinforced by flat and pulse bending buckypaper were systematically studied, and the heating mechanisms of multiple-field coupling were investigated. The shapes and dimensions of the buckypaper are crucial in the optimization of such the polymer composites for heat generation. Results showed that the polymer composites reinforced by the flat buckypaper had relatively higher maximum and average temperatures in a steady heated state compared with those by the pulse bending ones, whereas the minimum temperature of the composites reinforced by the flat buckypaper was relatively lower, so the temperature distribution in those flat ones was more non-uniform. The overall heating temperature of the polymer composites reinforced by both the flat and pulse bending buckypaper was increased linearly with the applied power. The larger the thermal conductivity of the polymer is, the lower the maximum and average temperatures are.