In order to investigate the genetic relationships between Dermanyssus gallinae (Metastigmata: Dermanyssidae) (de Geer) isolates from poultry farms in Italy and other European countries, phylogenetic analysis was performed using a portion of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of the mitochondrial DNA and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1+5.8S+ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA. A total of 360 cox1 sequences and 360 ITS+ sequences were obtained from mites collected on 24 different poultry farms in 10 different regions of Northern and Southern Italy. Phylogenetic analysis of the cox1 sequences resulted in the clustering of two groups (A and B), whereas phylogenetic analysis of the ITS+ resulted in largely unresolved clusters. Knowledge of the genetic make-up of mite populations within countries, together with comparative analyses of D. gallinae isolates from different countries, will provide better understanding of the population dynamics of D. gallinae. This will also allow the identification of genetic markers of emerging acaricide resistance and the development of alternative strategies for the prevention and treatment of infestations.