Multi-Objective Techno-Economic-Environmental Optimisation of Electric Vehicle for Energy Services

Ridoy Das, Yue Wang, Ghanim Putrus, Richard Kotter, Mousa Marzband, Bert Herteleer, Jos Warmerdam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

137 Citations (Scopus)
38 Downloads (Pure)


Electric vehicles and renewable energy sources are collectively being developed as a synergetic implementation for smart grids. In this context, smart charging of electric vehicles and vehicle-to-grid technologies are seen as a way forward to achieve economic, technical and environmental benefits. The implementation of these technologies requires the cooperation of the end-electricity user, the electric vehicle owner, the system operator and policy makers. These stakeholders pursue different and sometime conflicting objectives. In this paper, the concept of multi-objective-techno-economic-environmental optimisation is proposed for scheduling electric vehicle charging/discharging. End user energy cost, battery degradation, grid interaction and CO2 emissions in the home micro-grid context are modelled and concurrently optimised for the first time while providing frequency regulation. The results from three case studies show that the proposed method reduces the energy cost, battery degradation, CO2 emissions and grid utilisation by 88.2%, 67%, 34% and 90% respectively, when compared to uncontrolled electric vehicle charging. Furthermore, with multiple optimal solutions, in order to achieve a 41.8% improvement in grid utilisation, the system operator needs to compensate the end electricity user and the electric vehicle owner for their incurred benefit loss of 27.34% and 9.7% respectively, to stimulate participation in energy services.
Original languageEnglish
Article number113965
Number of pages18
JournalApplied Energy
Early online date23 Oct 2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2020


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