Multibit decoding of multiplicative watermarking for fingerprint images

Khalil Zebbiche, Fouad Khelifi, Ahmed Bouridane

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


In this paper, we propose an optimum decoder of multibit, multiplicative watermarks hidden within discrete wavelet transform (DWT) coefficients of fingerprint images. The structure of the decoder is based on the maximum-likelihood (ML) method which requires a probability distribution function (PDF). Generalized Gaussian PDF is used to model the statistical behaviour of the DWT coefficients. The performance of the decoder is tested in realistic scenarios, where attacks are taken into account. The experiments reveal that the proposed decoder provides very attractive results and the decoding error is within an acceptable range of tolerance.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationIn the proceedings of the IET International Conference on Visual Information Engineering (VIE 2007)
Number of pages5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2007
Externally publishedYes


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