Glucose sensors have been widely used for clinical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, and food industries. Traditional enzymatic glucose sensors are limited for practical applications due to the restriction of enzymes. In this context, non-enzymatic glucose sensors with metal nanoparticles as redox centers have become a prominent area of current research. However, the catalytic activity of metal nanoparticles is limited by their agglomeration and poor conductivity. In recent years, combining metal nanoparticles with highly conductive polymers to prepare multifunctional polymer nanocomposites (MPNCs) has become a popular strategy to overcome these problems. In this paper, the most recent progress in MPNCs for non-enzymatic glucose detection are briefly reviewed, and the challenges and perspectives are also discussed.