Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine content of foods commonly consumed in a Western style diet

George Hull, Jayne Woodside, Jenny Ames, Geraldine Cuskelly

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

224 Citations (Scopus)


The potential adverse effects on health of diet-derived advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) is of current interest, due to their proposed involvement in the disease progression of diabetic and uraemic conditions. However, accurate information about levels of AGEs in foods is lacking. The objective of this investigation was to determine the level of one particular AGE, Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), a marker of AGE formation, in a wide range of foods commonly consumed in a Western style diet. Individual foods (n = 257) were mixed, lyophilised, ground, reduced, fat-extracted, hydrolysed, and underwent solid-phase extraction. Extracts were analysed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS). Cereal (2.6 mg/100 g food) and fruit and vegetable (0.13 mg/100 g food) categories had the highest and lowest mean level of CML, respectively, when expressed in mg/100 g food. These data can be used for estimating potential consumer intakes, and provide information that can be used to educated consumers on how to reduce their CML intake.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)170-174
JournalFood Chemistry
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2012


Dive into the research topics of 'Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine content of foods commonly consumed in a Western style diet'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this