Opportunities and constraints of women entrepreneurs in Jordan: an update of the 5Ms framework

Tala Abuhussein*, Tamer Koburtay

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Drawing on the “5Ms” gender cognizant framework, this study seeks to investigate how money, motherhood, management, the market and the macro/meso environment dimensions of the 5Ms may influence women's entrepreneurship in Jordan. A related aim is to offer in-depth insights and a fresh understanding of potential factors not included in the original 5Ms model.

The study takes a qualitative-inductive approach, using semi-structured interviews with 14 women entrepreneurs from various industries in Jordan.

The paper highlights the positive (or adverse) impact of the 5Ms factors (motherhood, macro/meso environment, the market, management and money) on women entrepreneurs in Jordan and introduces new emerging factors. The paper concludes with an extended view of the 5Ms model.

Practical implications
This study may help develop greater sensitivity and understanding about some of the adverse gender practices faced by women entrepreneurs. Policymakers in Jordan and other Arab countries may consider empowering women entrepreneurs in terms of offering more financial funds and facilities, social support, and managerial empowerment.

The study creates more sensitivity and awareness about the current dynamics, opportunities and impediments that affect women entrepreneurs; thus, it contributes to the extant literature by suggesting new propositions and a novel framework. This study extends Brush et al.'s (2009) 5Ms gendered framework by adding three important factors (Mental health, Maturity and Maintainability). The empirical update and contextual extension of Brush et al.'s (2009) 5Ms model highlight a theoretical contribution.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1448-1475
JournalInternational Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research
Issue number6
Early online date26 Mar 2021
Publication statusPublished - 2 Aug 2021
Externally publishedYes


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