Electric vehicles (EVs) have recently gained much popularity as a green alternative to fossil-fuel cars and a feasible solution to reduce air pollution in big cities. The use of EVs can also be extended as a demand response tool to support high penetration of renewable energy (RE) sources in future smart grid. Based on the certainty equivalent adaptive control (CECA) principle and a customer participation program, this paper presents a novel control strategy using optimization technique to coordinate not only the charging but also the discharging of EV batteries to deal with the intermittency in RE production. In addition, customer charging requirements and schedules are incorporated into the optimization algorithm to ensure customer satisfaction, and further improve the control performance. The merits of this scheme are its simplicity, efficiency, robustness and readiness for practical applications. The effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm is demonstrated by computer simulations of a power system with high level of wind energy integration.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification|
|Early online date||6 May 2015|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Aug 2015|