Research efforts in the area of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are heavily dependent on the development and evaluations of protocols through simulations. Therefore, realistic simulations are vital for the development of viable protocols. However, most the research efforts that depend on simulations tend to use non-realistic parameters and assumptions. Such examples include use of infinite transmit power levels and no consideration of radio propagation loss and irregularities. These assumptions are common among many clustering protocols which lead to incorrect estimation of performance metrics such as network lifetime, energy consumed per bit, and connectivity. In this paper we modify clustering protocols by incorporating a model compliant with Crossbow MICAz motes. The energy consumption model takes into account the discrete transmit power levels of the CC2420 radio ship used by MICAz sensor nodes. The radio propagation path loss is modeled by using the Lognormal Shadowing Model. We evaluate a number of clustering protocols including LEACH, HEED, EECS and MOECS. We also present results that demonstrate how realistic assumptions can effect the system behavior in comparison with the results obtained by assuming ideal conditions.
|IPSI Transactions on Internet Research
|Published - Jan 2009