In this study, the physical–mechanical and mineralogical properties of bricks used in historical structures of the site of Harran, Turkey have been investigated. Harran was destroyed by the Mongol army, during the Turkish reconquest campaign around the 1260s. The remains of the buildings made of bricks and basalt/limestone were recently uncovered almost in their entirety. Several brick samples have been taken from the burial mound, the university, the city walls, the castle, and the great mosque. From the visual analyses, it was noted that the bricks have unique colors such as pottery, desert beige, and canyon. Physical analyses show that the absorption rates of the bricks are between 17.30–38.12%, their densities between 1.33–1.70 g/cm3, and porosities between 8.88–25.31%. For the mechanical analyses, the bending strengths have been found to be between 0.82–1.86 MPa and compressive strengths between 6.69–7.95 MPa. The thin-section images show that the bricks contain calcite, muscovite, and plagioclase quartz and pyroxene minerals.