Planning for the future of urban biodiversity: A global review of city-scale initiatives

Charles H. Nilon*, Myla F.J. Aronson, Sarel S. Cilliers, Cynnamon Dobbs, Lauren J. Frazee, Mark A. Goddard, Karen M. O'Neill, Debra Roberts, Emilie K. Stander, Peter Werner, Marten Winter, Ken P. Yocom

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

144 Citations (Scopus)


Cities represent considerable opportunities for forwarding global biodiversity and sustainability goals. We developed key attributes for conserving biodiversity and for ecosystem services that should be included in urban-planning documents and reviewed 135 plans from 40 cities globally. The most common attributes in city plans were goals for habitat conservation, air and water quality, cultural ecosystem services, and ecological connectivity. Few plans included quantitative targets. This lack of measurable targets may render plans unsuccessful for an actionable approach to local biodiversity conservation. Although most cities include both biodiversity and ecosystem services, each city tends to focus on one or the other. Comprehensive planning for biodiversity should include the full range of attributes identified, but few cities do this, and the majority that do are mandated by local, regional, or federal governments to plan specifically for biodiversity conservation. This research provides planning recommendations for protecting urban biodiversity based on ecological knowledge.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)332-342
Number of pages11
Issue number4
Early online date10 Mar 2017
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2017


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