The present study uses the isogeometric analysis (IGA) to investigate the post-buckling behavior of functionally graded (FG) microplates subjected to mechanical and thermal loads. The modified a strain gradient theory with three length scale parameters is used to capture the size effect. The Reddy third-order shear deformation plate theory with the von Kámán nonlinearity (i.e., small strains and moderate rotations) is employed to describe the kinematics of the microplates. Material variations in the thickness direction of the plate are described using a rule of mixtures. In addition, material properties are assumed to be either temperature-dependent or temperature-independent. The governing equations are derived using the principle of virtual work, which are then discretized using the IGA approach, whereby a C2-continuity requirement is fulfilled naturally and efficiently. To trace the post-buckling paths, Newton’s iterative technique is utilized. Various parametric studies are conducted to examine the influences of material variations, size effects, thickness ratios, and boundary conditions on the post-buckling behavior of microplates.