Long-duration exposure to the space environment causes physical adaptations that are deleterious to optimal functioning on Earth. Post-mission rehabilitation traditionally concentrates on regaining general muscle strength, neuromuscular control, and lumbo-pelvic stability. A particular problem is muscle imbalance caused by the hypertrophy of the flexor and atrophy of the extensor and local lumbo-pelvic muscles, increasing the risk of post-mission injury. A method currently used in European human spaceflight to aid post-mission recovery involves a motor control approach, focusing initially on teaching voluntary contraction of specific lumbo-pelvic muscles and optimizing spinal position, progressing to functional retraining in weight bearing positions. An alternative approach would be to use a Functional Readaptive Exercise Device to appropriately recruit this musculature, thus complementing current rehabilitation programs. Advances in post-mission recovery of this nature may both improve astronaut healthcare and aid terrestrial healthcare through more effective treatment of low back pain and accelerated post bed rest rehabilitation.