A new finite modelling approach is presented to analyse the mode I delamination fracture toughness of z-pinned laminates using the computationally efficient embedded element technique. In the FE model, each z-pin is represented by a single one-dimensional truss element that is embedded within the laminate. Each truss is given the material, geometric and spatial properties associated with the global crack bridging traction response of a z-pin in the laminate; this simplification provides a computationally efficient and flexible model where pin elements are independent of the underlying structural mesh for the laminate. The accuracy of the FE modelling approach is assessed using mode I interlaminar fracture toughness data for a carbon-epoxy laminate reinforced with z-pins made of copper, titanium or stainless steel. The model is able to predict with good accuracy the crack growth resistance curves and fracture toughness properties for the different types of z-pinned laminate.
|Number of pages
|Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing
|Early online date
|6 Oct 2016
|Published - 1 Dec 2016