With extensive and widespread uses of miniaturized and intelligent wearable devices, continuously monitoring subtle spatial and temporal changes in human physiological states becomes crucial for daily healthcare and professional medical diagnosis. Wearable acoustical sensors and related monitoring systems can be comfortably applied onto human body with a distinctive function of non-invasive detection. This paper reviews recent advances in wearable acoustical sensors for medical applications. Structural designs and characteristics of the structural components of wearable electronics, including piezoelectric and capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (i.e., pMUT and cMUT), surface acoustic wave sensors (SAW) and triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) are discussed, along with their fabrication techniques and manufacturing processes. Diagnostic applications of these wearable sensors for detection of biomarkers or bioreceptors and diagnostic imaging have further been discussed. Finally, main challenges and future research directions in these fields are highlighted.