This paper presents three-dimensional progressive collapse analyses of composite steel frames exposed to fire following earthquake. The scenarios of heating columns located in various different fire compartments (internal, edge and corner bay) are first studied to investigate load redistribution paths and members’ interactions within the composite frame. The results show that the loads previously supported by the heated columns are redistributed to adjacent columns along two horizontal directions, a phenomenon which cannot be captured in a 2D model. Then, the 3D model is adopted to investigate the effect of residual deformation after an earthquake on the progressive collapse behaviour of the composite building. It is found that neither the load redistribution path nor the fire resistance of the building is considerably affected by the residual deformation. A series of progressive collapse analyses subjected to travelling fires resulting from fire compartment damage is also performed. It is concluded that the survival of the building can be greatly affected by the spatial nature of the travelling fire as well as the inter-zone time delay.