Prospective associations between multiple lifestyle behaviors and depressive symptoms

André O. Werneck*, Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs, Danilo R. Silva, Gabriel G. Cucato, Diego G.D. Christofaro, Raul D. Santos, Raphael M. Ritti-Dias, Márcio S. Bittencourt

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background
Our aim was to analyze the associations between multiple lifestyle behaviors and depressive symptoms.

Methods
We included 4,725 adults (18-59y), that provided data in routine health evaluations of a hospital in Brazil, followed for a mean period of 3.1±1.6 years. Physical activity, alcohol consumption (measured using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) and tobacco smoking were categorized as: (1) absence of the behavior (inactivity i.e. not complying with 150 min of moderate-to-vigorous PA/week, not smoking, no risky drinking, i.e. AUDIT<5) during baseline and follow-up; (2) Absence during baseline and presence during follow-up; (3) Presence during baseline and absence during follow-up; (4) Presence during both time points. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Beck Inventory was adopted to analyze patterns of depressive symptoms over time (as exposure). C-reactive protein [HS-CRP]) was assessed and its role in the association was tested. Incidence indicators of behaviors and depressive symptoms were created and used as outcomes. We used crude and adjusted Poisson regression analysis.

Results
Fully adjusted models revealed that persistently physical inactive participants (RR:1.71;95%CI:1.33-2.21), those who became physically inactive (1.68;1.19-2.26), with consistently risky drinking (1.62;1.15-2.30), and who became risky drinkers (1.62;1.15-2.30) had higher risk for incidence of elevated depressive symptoms. Vice versa participants with incidence of depressive symptoms over time presented higher risk for physical inactivity (1.44;1.11-1.87) and risky drinking (1.65;1.16-2.34) incidence. HS-CRP did not influence the associations.

Limitations
Self-reported physical activity, binary tobacco smoking, and non-probabilistic sampling.

Conclusions
There is a prospective relationship between elevated depressive symptoms and adverse lifestyle behaviors.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)233-239
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Affective Disorders
Volume301
Early online date2 Jan 2022
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2 Jan 2022

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