Many age-related diseases are associated with metabolic abnormalities, and dietary interventions may have some benefit in alleviating symptoms or in delaying disease onset. Here, we review the commonly used best practices involved in applications of the ketogenic diet to facilitate its translation into clinical use. The findings reveal that better education of physicians is essential for applying the optimum diet and monitoring its effects in clinical practice. In addition, investigators should carefully consider potential confounding factors prior to commencing studies involving a ketogenic diet. Most importantly, current studies should improve their reporting on ketone levels as well as on the intake of both macro- and micronutrients. Finally, more detailed studies on the mechanism of action are necessary to help identify potential biomarkers for response prediction and monitoring, and to uncover new drug targets to aid the development of novel treatments.