Psychometric properties of two implementation measures: Normalization MeAsure Development questionnaire (NoMAD) and organizational readiness for implementing change (ORIC)

P. Batterham, Caroline Allenhof, Arlinda Cerga Pashoja, A. Etzelmueller, N. Fanaj, T. Finch, Johanna Freund, D. Hanssen, K. Mathiasen, Jordi Piera Jiminez, G. Qirjako, T. Rapley, Y. Sacco, L. Samalin, J. Schuurmans, Claire Rosalie van Genugten, C. Vis*

*Corresponding author for this work

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Background: Effective interventions need to be implemented successfully to achieve impact. Two theory-based measures exist for measuring the effectiveness of implementation strategies and monitor implementation progress. The Normalization MeAsure Development questionnaire (NoMAD) explores the four core concepts (Coherence, Cognitive Participation, Collective Action, Reflexive Monitoring) of the Normalization Process Theory. The Organizational Readiness for Implementing Change (ORIC) is based on the theory of Organizational Readiness for Change, measuring organization members’ psychological and behavioral preparedness for implementing a change. We examined the measurement properties of the NoMAD and ORIC in a multi-national implementation effectiveness study.
Method: Twelve mental health organizations in nine countries implemented Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) for common mental disorders. Staff involved in iCBT service delivery (n = 318) participated in the study. Both measures were translated into eight languages using a standardized forward–backward translation procedure. Correlations between measures and subscales were estimated to examine convergent validity. The theoretical factor structures of the scales were tested using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Test–retest reliability was based on the correlation between scores at two time points 3 months apart. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Floor and ceiling effects were quantified using the proportion of zero and maximum scores.
Results: NoMAD and ORIC measure related but distinct latent constructs. The CFA showed that the use of a total score for each measure is appropriate. The theoretical subscales of the NoMAD had adequate internal consistency. The total scale had high internal consistency. The total ORIC scale and subscales demonstrated high internal consistency. Test–retest reliability was suboptimal for both measures and floor and ceiling effects were absent.
Conclusions: This study confirmed the psychometric properties of the NoMAD and ORIC in multi-national mental health care settings. While measuring on different but related aspects of implementation processes, the NoMAD and ORIC prove to be valid and reliable across different language settings.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalImplementation Research and Practice
Early online date28 Apr 2024
Publication statusPublished - 28 Apr 2024

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