BACKGROUND The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare quality of life after regular care provision in people with and without currently treated chronic disease in a country-wide and population-based setting. METHODS Data were retrieved from Welsh Health Survey, 2013. Information on demographics, lifestyle factors, health conditions, regular care provision and quality of life was obtained by household interview. Chi-square test, t-test and survey-weighted multi-nominal regression modelling were performed. RESULTS Of 15 007 Welsh adults aged 16 and above, 2751 (19.1%) people reported that they have been giving care for any sick, disabled or frail person. They tended to be aged 40-74, being female, education 25, physically active, current smokers and living in second-hand smoking households. In caregivers with current chronic disease (n = 1562), they have experienced physical health limits, bodily pains, emotional problems, less calm and less cheerful. In caregivers without current chronic diseases (n = 1151), they have experienced physical health limits, bodily pains, less cheerful, downhearted and unhappiness. CONCLUSIONS This is the first study to examine quality of life in caregivers both with and without currently treated chronic disease. Longitudinal monitoring and increasing education, training and support to lessen caregiving burden would be suggested.