This paper describes a gas chromatography coupled with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD) method that was developed for screening and reliable quantification of some selected PBDE congeners (BDE 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183 and 209) in wastewater. Emphasis was placed on the ability of the method to simultaneously analyse low to high BDE congeners in a single run, whilst being comparatively cost-effective to gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods commonly employed today. Different solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges (Oasis HLB, Isolute PAH, and Isolute C18) were tested for efficient analyte extraction in terms of recovery and resultant clean extracts free of unwanted compounds. Isolute PAH performed better than other SPE cartridges, and in combination with optimized GC-ECD conditions permitted satisfactory determination of PBDE congeners at trace levels (method detection limits (MDLs) of 0.6 ng L-1 to 11 ng L-1) in water samples. Method accuracy and precision were evaluated by recovery experiments using laboratory spiked water samples at two concentrations (3 ng L-1 and 10 ng L-1). The method was employed to evaluate the fate and removal of selected PBDE congeners in a conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Northern England. PBDEs were detected in influent and effluent samples at 0-113 ng L-1 and 0-18 ng L-1 respectively.
|Number of pages||9|
|Publication status||Published - 21 Jul 2019|