In this paper, the impact of different types of leaks on the excess pumping energy required in a distribution pipe is investigated. It is now well established that leakage is directly proportional to the pressure at the leak point in a pipe such that a pressure drop is inevitable. In order to compensate this drop in pressure, the pumping energy required to supply demand at a constant pressure has to be increased. How much more energy is required depends on the type and extent of the leak. For the 3 types of simulated leaks namely: orifice, circumferential and longitudinal slits with the same area of discharge, it is found that the excess pumping energy required for a circumferential crack in the pipe is the highest, followed by the orifice and then longitudinal slit as a result of the discharge to sustain customer demand and pressure head. The results of this research can be used to design a more robust control system or pump rescheduling strategy in order to save energy and water with regard to design, operation, and rehabilitation of old water distribution system.
|Title of host publication
|Emerging Trends in Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering
|Peter Fleming, Nalinaksh Vyas, Saeid Sanei, Kalyanmoy Deb
|Place of Publication
|E-pub ahead of print - 21 Jan 2017
|Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering