Bionic robotics and actuators have made dramatic advancements in structural design, material preparation, and application owing to the richness of nature and innovative material design. Appropriate and ingenious sources of bio-inspiration can stimulate a large number of different bionic systems. After millennia of survival and evolutionary exploration, the mere existence of life confirms that nature is constantly moving in an evolutionary direction of optimization and improvement. To this end, bio-inspired robots and actuators can be constructed for the completion of a variety of artificial design instructions and requirements. In this article, the advances in bio-inspired materials for robotics and actuators with the sources of bio-inspiration are reviewed. The specific sources of inspiration in bionic systems and corresponding bio-inspired applications are summarized first. Then the basic functions of materials in bio-inspired robots and actuators is discussed. Moreover, a principle of matching biomaterials is creatively suggested. Furthermore, the implementation of biological information extraction is discussed, and the preparation methods of bionic materials are reclassified. Finally, the challenges and potential opportunities involved in finding sources of bio-inspiration and materials for robotics and actuators in the future is discussed.