Reduction of Excessive Flash in Friction Stir Processing of AA1100: An Experimental Observation Study

Tawanda Marazani*, Esther T. Akinlabi, Daniel M. Madyira

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Friction stir processing (FSP) has proven to be a powerful emerging surface engineering technology for modifying metal surfaces and their bulk properties to desired forms. As a variant of friction stir welding (FSW), FSP borrows its principles of functionality from FSW. FSP technology is highly dependent on careful selection of process parameters. Its key parameters include tool rotational speed, traverse speed, tool tilt angles, axial force, tool and process design as well as base metal properties. Formation of excessive flash is a common FSP parametric challenge which needs to be studied. In this work, build-up of mass flash was experimentally observed and controlled by varying process tool tilt angle and the rotational during FSP of AA1100. The process was conducted using H13 tool steel cylindrical tool with a shoulder diameter of 21 mm with a 7 mm cylindrical threaded pin, at constant traverse speed of 20 mm/min at tilt angles varying from 0° to 3°, rotational speeds of 500 to 1500 rpm for unreinforced process and 2100–2800 rpm for reinforced process, at constant plunge depth of 0.2 mm, and traverse force of 11.2 kN. Results obtained from the physically examined FSP’ed samples show that excessive flash was generated for tilt angles from 0° to 2° as a result of limited under-shoulder space for flow of the plasticized material and the front tip of the tool digging into the base metal ejecting material from the processed zone. Massive flash reduction was observed at 2.5°. A further improvement of flash reduction was witnessed at 3° tilt angle but with reduced shoulder-to-base metal areal contact due to too much raised tool front.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Material Sciences and Engineering, ICMMPE 2018
EditorsMokhtar Awang, Seyed Sattar Emamian, Farazila Yusof
Number of pages10
ISBN (Print)9789811382963
Publication statusPublished - 2020
Externally publishedYes
Event4th International Conference on Mechanical, Manufacturing and Plant Engineering, ICMMPE 2018 - Melaka, Malaysia
Duration: 14 Nov 201815 Nov 2018

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering
ISSN (Print)2195-4356
ISSN (Electronic)2195-4364


Conference4th International Conference on Mechanical, Manufacturing and Plant Engineering, ICMMPE 2018

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