Skeletal muscle is a flexible and adaptable tissue that strongly responds to exercise training. The skeletal muscle responds to exercise by increasing muscle protein synthesis (MPS) when energy is available. One of protein synthesis's major rate-limiting and critical regulatory steps is the translation elongation pathway. The process of translation elongation in skeletal muscle is highly regulated. It requires elongation factors that are intensely affected by various physiological stimuli such as exercise and the total available energy of cells. Studies have shown that exercise involves the elongation pathway by numerous signaling pathways. Since the elongation pathway, has been far less studied than the other translation steps, its comprehensive prospect and quantitative understanding remain in the dark. This study highlights the current understanding of the effect of exercise training on the translation elongation pathway focusing on the molecular factors affecting the pathway, including Ca2+, AMPK, PKA, mTORC1/P70S6K, MAPKs, hypoxia, and myostatin. We further discussed the mode and volume of exercise training intervention on the translation elongation pathway.