In this paper a polar coding scheme for ultraviolet communication (UVC) systems is proposed and experimentally implemented to address the high path loss propagation, which severely deteriorates the communication performance. Firstly, we analyze the property of the path loss in the optical domain by applying the particle-wave duality to the existing path loss model. Considering the characteristic of the UV channel, we design a polar code with specific channel correlations, and study the computational complexity in terms of the code length. A new theoretical Bhattacharyya upper-bound for the general polar codes is introduced and applied to the UV channel in order to derive a minimum code length without impairing a required bit error rate performance. Numerical simulations and o -line experimental investigations validate the proposed polar coding scheme, which can e ectively combat path loss induced performance deterioration with a relatively low computational complexity.