Bandaging and elastic residual limb sock are two residual limb management methods for persons with transtibial amputation before prosthesis fitting. The study objective was to compare the effectiveness of the two techniques in terms of residual limb circumferential changes, shape, and firmness. A prospective two-group experimental design was used. Thirty-nine and 42 participants were randomly allocated to a bandaging group and residual limb sock group, respectively. Weekly residual limb circumferential measurement, rating scales on residual limb shape, and firmness were obtained during a 6-week time period. Repeated measure analysis of variance with the Cantonese version of Mini-Mental State Examination Scores and residual limb characteristics as covariates were used to investigate the differences in outcome measures within and between the groups. Significant residual limb circumferential reduction and firmness improvement were found in both groups (p < 0.05). Residual limb circumferential measurement and residual limb firmness were found to be significantly different between the groups (p < 0.05). Only the bandaging group showed significant improvement in residual limb shape (F (1, 38) = 1.00-5.5, p < 0.05). Significant associations with age and the Cantonese version of Mini-Mental State Examination Scores were detected on the outcome measures between the groups (p < 0.05). The study findings showed that both techniques were effective in residual limb management. The bandaging application was found to have more residual limb circumferential reduction and firmness improvement, but the effect may be limited by advanced age and poor mental function.