Our previously reported exploration (Journal of Membrane Science 565 (2018) 241–253) on the differences between fouling in reverse osmosis (RO) and forward osmosis (FO), used alginate as a foulant with initial conditions that ensured that the starting fluxes were the same. That study found that for a cellulose triacetate (CTA) membrane the extent of fouling, based on the analysis of foulant resistance, was greater when the membrane was part of a FO system. Herein, using the same methodology, results for a thin film composite membrane with alginate as the foulant are presented and these confirm the same general conclusion namely that the extent of foulant accumulation in FO mode is more severe than in RO mode. Furthermore the specific fouling resistance with alginate fouling in FO is more than for RO. However examining the overall operation including cleaning as well as fouling, this study suggests that FO operation is potentially less sensitive to fouling phenomena than RO for similar feed materials. This is due to the driving force compensation coming from a changing level of ICP. Some preliminary work including that with silica particles is also reported.
|Number of pages||14|
|Journal||Discover Chemical Engineering|
|Early online date||20 Dec 2021|
|Publication status||Published - Dec 2021|