The milk casein genes in goats, are highly polymorphic genes with numerous synonymous and non-synonymous mutations. So far, 20 protein variants have been reported in goats for alpha-S1-casein, eight for beta-casein, 14 for alpha-S2-casein, and 24 for kappa-casein. This review provides a comprehensive overview on identified milk casein protein variants in goat and non-coding DNA sequence variants with some affecting the expression of the casein genes. The high frequency of some casein protein variants in different goat breeds and geographical regions might reflect specific breeding goals with respect to milk processing characteristics, properties for human nutrition and health, or adaptation to the environment. Because protein names, alongside the discovery of protein variants, go through a historical process, we linked old protein names with new ones that reveal more genetic variability. The haplotypes across the cluster of the four genetically linked casein genes are recommended as a valuable genetic tool for discrimination between breeds, managing genetic diversity within and between goat populations, and breeding strategies. The enormous variation in the casein proteins and genes is crucial for producing milk and dairy products with different properties for human health and nutrition, and for genetic improvement depending on local breeding goals.