This paper presents a nonlinear robust adaptive excitation controller design for a simple power system model where a synchronous generator is connected to an infinite bus. The proposed controller is designed to obtain the adaption laws for estimating critical parameters of synchronous generators which are considered as unknown while providing the robustness against the bounded external disturbances. The convergence of different physical quantities of a single machine infinite bus (SMIB) system, with the proposed control scheme, is ensured through the negative definiteness of the derivative of Lyapunov functions. The effects of external disturbances are considered during formulation of Lyapunov function and thus, the proposed excitation controller can ensure the stability of the SMIB system under the variation of critical parameters as well as external disturbances including noises. Finally, the performance of the proposed scheme is investigated with the inclusion of external disturbances in the SMIB system and its superiority is demonstrated through the comparison with an existing robust adaptive excitation controller. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme provides faster responses of physical quantities than the existing controller.