This study reports the development of a three-dimensional (3D) numerical model for acoustic interactions with a microscale sessile droplet under surface acoustic wave (SAW) excitation using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). We first validate the model before SAW interactions are added. The results demonstrate good agreements with the analytical results for thermodynamic consistency, Laplace law, static contact angle on a flat surface, and droplet oscillation. We then investigate SAW interactions on the droplet, with resonant frequencies ranging 61.7 MHz to 250.1 MHz. According to our findings, an increase in wave amplitude elicits an increase in streaming velocity inside the droplet, causing internal mixing, and further increase in wave amplitude leads to pumping and jetting. The boundaries of wave amplitude at various resonant frequencies are predicted for mixing, pumping and jetting modes. The modelling predictions on the roles of forces (SAW, interfacial tension, inertia and viscosity) on the dynamics of mixing, pumping and jetting of a droplet are in good agreement with observations and experimental data. The model is further applied to investigate the effects of SAW substrate surface wettability, viscosity ratio, and interfacial tension on SAW actuation onto the droplet. This work demonstrates the capability of the LBM in the investigation of acoustic wave interactions between SAW and a liquid medium.
|Journal||Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Oct 2021|