This paper assumes a smart grid framework where the driving patterns for electric vehicles are known, time variations in electricity prices are communicated to householders, and data on voltage variation throughout the distribution system are available. Based on this information, an aggregator with access to this data can be employed to minimise electric vehicles charging costs to the owner whilst maintaining acceptable distribution system voltages. In this study, electric vehicle charging is assumed to take place only in the home. A single-phase Low Voltage (LV) distribution network is investigated where the local electric vehicles penetration level is assumed to be 100%. Electric vehicle use patterns have been extracted from the UK Time of Use Survey data with a 10-min resolution and the domestic base load is generated from an existing public domain model. Apart from the so-called real time price signal, which is derived from the electricity system wholesale price, the cost of battery degradation is also considered in the optimal scheduling of electric vehicles charging. A simple and effective heuristic method is proposed to minimise the electric vehicles’ charging cost whilst satisfying the requirement of state of charge for the electric vehicles’ battery. A simulation in OpenDSS over a period of 24 h has been implemented, taking care of the network constraints for voltage level at the customer connection points. The optimisation results are compared with those obtained using dynamic optimal power flow.
|Journal||Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy|
|Early online date||23 Jan 2017|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Sep 2017|